教你一招搞定托福阅读考试

2014-6-24 08:45| 发布者: 易留学| 查看: 13490| 评论: 0

托福阅读的文章一般都很长,细节众多,其中事实细节题可以说是难度较大的题目之一,需要对文章的细节内容有很好的掌握。但事实细节题又是托福阅读中所占比例较大的题型,时间紧、任务重,要如何拿下呢?沪江英语教研课堂邀请到沪江网校的托福备考名师猫猫老师给大家分享事实细节题的破题秘诀!

【锁定信号词-找到辐射区】

事实细节题建议大家采用“锁定信号词-找到辐射区”的方法来解答事实题,我们一起来了解一下这种方法:

细节题题目一般都会就文章中的一个名词或者一项事实来提问,该名词或事实就是“signpost word(s)”,即所谓的信号词;托福阅读的题目一般都会针对某一段提问,建议大家在确认了信号词之后,回到对应段落,通过“scanning”及扫读的方式,迅速定位到原文中的信号词处,将信号词上下几句划为辐射区进行研究,提高做题效率。

【例题练习】

一起来看例题,将这个方法应用到实战中来吧。

题目

1. The period discussed in the passage isreferred to as an “explosion” because it

A occurred 0.6 billion years ago, late inEarth’s history

B was characterized by the unusually fastevolution of many new life-forms

C was characterized by widespread animalextinction

D was characterized by violent volcaniceruptions

题目问的是,文章中讨论的这一时期之所以被称为“大爆发”是因为什么。

这篇阅读文章是围绕着“寒武纪生物大爆发”展开内容的。在本题目,explosion就是我们所说的信号词。

原文中与本题对应的段落内容如下:

The geologic timescale is marked bysignificant geologic and biological events, including the origin of Earth about4.6 billion years ago, the origin of life about 3.5 billion years ago, theorigin of eukaryotic life-forms (living things that have cells with truenuclei) about 1.5 billion years ago, and the origin of animals about 0.6billion years ago. The last event marks the beginning of the Cambrian period.Animals originated relatively late in the history of Earth – in only the last10 percent of Earth’s history. During a geologically brief 100-million-yearperiod, all modern animal groups (along with other animals that are nowextinct) evolved. This rapid origin and diversification of animals is oftenreferred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”

内容很多,通过扫读,我们看到explosion这个词出现在段落最后,我们将本信号词前的两句话定为辐射区,即:

During a geologically brief100-million-year period, all modern animal groups (along with other animalsthat are now extinct) evolved. This rapid origin and diversification of animalsis often referred to as “the Cambrian explosion.”

解读一下辐射区的意思:

在短暂的一亿年的地质学周期中,所有现代动物群(包括现在已经灭绝的生物)都进化了。

这次快速的动物起源和动物种类多样化情况产生的时期常常被称为“寒武纪大爆发”。

我们了解到,这一时期的特征就是动物种类多样化,动物发展的速度快,这也是这一时期被称为“大爆发”的缘由。

研究选项:

A occurred 0.6 billion years ago, late inEarth’s history

A 表示这一时期之所以被称为“大爆发”是因为它发生在六亿年前,是在地球历史的晚期。

本选项不对,是否被称为“大爆发”,与出现的时期无关。

B was characterized by the unusually fastevolution of many new life-forms

B 表示这一时期之所以被称为“大爆发”是因为这段时期的特征是很多生命形式以不同寻常的速度进化演变

B正确,它提到了这一时期之所以被称为“大爆发”的两个原因“很多的生命形式”以及“不同寻常的速度”,与原文辐射区相吻合。

C was characterized by widespread animalextinction

C 表示这一时期之所以被称为“大爆发”是因为这段时期的特征是很多动物都灭绝了。

C选项错误,动物灭绝和“大爆发”是相悖的。

D was characterized by violent volcaniceruptions

D表示这一时期之所以被称为“大爆发”是因为这段时期的特征是火山爆发的情况很严重。注意:volcanic: 火山的,eruption: 爆发。因此,D也不对,辐射区没有提到火山的问题,而且它与被称为“大爆发”的原因也不吻合。

本题选择B。

2. According to paragraph 1, which of the following is true of the white-tailed deer of Puget Sound?

A. It is native to lowlands and marshes.

B. It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than toother types of deer.

C. It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.

D. It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it onceoccupied.

题目问的是,从文章第一段看,以下哪个选项在描述皮吉特我爱湾白尾鹿的时候表述是正确的?

这篇文章是围绕着皮吉特湾的鹿群展开内容的。在本题中,white-tailed deer就是我们所说的信号词(短语)。

原文中与本题对应的段落内容如下:

Two species of deer have been prevalent inthe Puget Sound area of Washington state in the Pacific Northwest of the UnitedStates. The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer ofeastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times wascommon in the open prairie country, it is now restricted to the low, marshyislands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.

通过扫读,我们看到white-tailed deer这个词(短语),将本信号词(短语)后面的三个分句定为辐射区,即:

…white-tailed deer, in earlier times wascommon in the open prairie country, it is now restricted to the low, marshyislands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.

解读一下辐射区的意思:

白尾鹿早前在开阔的草原是很常见的,但是现在它们的居住范围缩小至哥伦比亚河流下游的低地沼泽及冲积平原。

从辐射区我们了解到,白尾鹿曾经的活动范围比现在大得多,现在和以前的生活地区有所不同。

研究选项:

A. It is native to lowlands andmarshes.

A表示白尾鹿是在低地及沼泽土生土长的。这与辐射区”in earlier times was common in the open prairie country”不符,A错误。

B. It is more closely related to the mule deer of eastern Washington than toother types of deer.

B表示白尾鹿与骡鹿有近亲关系,和辐射区内容无关,且与第一段中” The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the muledeer of eastern Washington”(黑尾鹿是骡鹿的近亲)相悖,B错误。

C. It has replaced the black-tailed deer in the open prairie.

C表示在开阔的草原地区,白尾鹿被黑尾鹿取代了。这个选项是无中生有的选项。C错误。

D. It no longer lives in a particular type of habitat that it onceoccupied.

D表示白尾鹿现在的居住地和以前的居住地不一样。与辐射区意思相符,选择D。

重复一下,托福阅读的信息量很大,如果在解事实细节题时把所有信息都吃透再做题,会导致时间不够,我们可以采用“锁定信号词-找到辐射区”的方法来解答这类题,把需要理解的信息的包围圈缩小,吃透该范围内与信号词相关的细节,有助于我们迅速作出正确答案。




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